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Equipment

 

Surface scanning and positioning:

 

Multicopter

 

 

Hardware:

  • DJI Phantom 3 Advanced
Software:
  • Agisoft PhotoScan Professional
 

Method:

Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), also referred to as drones and multicopters, offer a great variety of applications in geomorphic research. Commercially available UAVs can be operated easily through an Android/IOS app. Our working group uses a DJI Phantom 3 Advanced to collect optical aerial imagery of geomorphic features in the field. From these imagery, we can produce high-resolution digital elevation models and orthophotos using the photogrammetric software Agisoft PhotoScan. Our aim is to compare DEMs and orthophotos collected in different points of time, in order to detect geomorphic changes.

 

 

 

Differential GPS: Trimble R8s/R2 & Leica CS25

 

 

 

Hardware:

  • Trimble R8s and R2 antennas with equipment
  • Leica CS25 tablet with equipment

 

Method:

Differential global positioning systems use a correction method in order to enhance absolute/relative positioning in the field. Our equipment can be used in two different ways: 1) In a base and rover setting the base station is placed at a fixed (known) location. From the known coordinates and the GPS signal received, a correction for the rover is calculated, achieving a positioning accuracy of several cm. 2) Signals of commercially available fixed stations are used for real time correction of GPS data. In this setting, only one antenna (rover) is used (R8s or Leica CS25) and receives the correction signals from the mobile network.

 

 

 

Geophysical surveying equipment:

 

Electric Resistivity Tomography


 

 

Hardware:

  • ABEM Terrameter LS
  • for up to 64  electrodes
  • 2 ABEM Lund cables with 21 take-outs at 5 m interval

Software:

  • RES2DINV for data analysis 

 

Method:

Electric Resistivity Tomography measures the electric resistivity of certain ground sections by applying current and measuring voltage differences at  electrodes positioned along profile-lines . The measured "apparent resistivity"-values are re-calculated in by an analysis-software in several iteration steps to gain a 2D-modell of the subsurface resistivity-distribution. The resistivity-distribution gives information eg. about location and thickness of certain layers, water or ice content and moisture distribution.

 

 

Ground-Penetrating Radar (GPR)

 

radar

 

Hardware:

  • GSSI SIR4000
  • 200 MHz-Antenna (shielded)

Software:

  • Radan 7
  • ReflexW

 

Method:

Ground-penetrating radar is a technique that uses high-frequency electromagnetic waves to acquire information on subsurface composition. The electromagnetic pulse is emitted from a transmitter antenna and propagates through the subsurface at a velocity determined by the dielectric properties of the subsurface materials. The pulse is reflected by inhomogeneities and layer boundaries and is received by a second antenna after a measured travel time (Schrott & Sass 2008).

 

 

Seismic refraction

 

Hardware:

  • Geometrics Geode Seismic Recorder (24 channel seismograph)
  • 24 geophones with 14 Hz
  • 1 cable with 5 m take outs
  • Panasonic Toughbook CF-19 MK4 for operation

Software:

  • Seismodule Controller Software (SCS) for data aquisition
  • ReflexW for data analysis

 

Method: 

The principle of seismic refraction is based on elastic waves travelling through different subsurface materials, such as sand, gravel, and bedrock, at different velocities. The denser the material, the faster the waves travel. A prerequisite for the successful application is that each successive underlying layer of sediment or bedrock must increase in density and therefore, velocity (Schrott & Sass 2008). 

 

 

 

Rock testing:

 

Schmidt hammer

 

 

 

Method:

The Proseq RockSchmidt (Type N) is a special Schmidt hammer for rock testing applications to investigate e.g. rock hardness, rock strength and weathering. The RockSchmidt measures the distance of rebound of the impact of a piston on a rock surface, i.e. harder rocks have higher rebound (R) values. Further applications include the age estimation of geomorphic landforms of e.g. periglacial, glacial or mass movement origin (i.e. relative dating or Schmidt hammer exposure-age dating combined with cosmogenic nuclide dating). Calibration of the Schmidt hammer can be easily achieved with the Proceq test anvil (see proceq). 

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